There are four pollutants associated with grazing: sediment, nutrients, pathogens and heat (stream temperature).
Sediment is a product of erosion from poorly vegetated soils and may result from heavy grazing, dirt roads, construction activity, natural forces and other human activities.
When livestock concentrate near stream channels there is increased risk of nutrient and pathogen loading that may effect domestic water sources, fisheries and recreation.
Loss of vegetation along streambanks may result in increased heating of streams resulting in stream temperatures that are too hot for cold water fishes (trout, steelhead, salmon) and other aquatic organisms.
- Lewis, D.J., K.W. Tate, and J.M. Harper. 2000. Sediment delivery monitoring: A water quality tool for California Rangeland watersheds. University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 8014. Davis, California.
- Lewis, D.J., K.W. Tate, J.M. Harper, and J. Price. 2001. Survey identifies sediment sources in North Coast rangelands. Calif. Agric. 55(4):32-38.
- George, MR, RE Larsen, NK McDougald, KW Tate, JD Gerlach, and KO Fulgham. 2004. Cattle grazing has varying effects on stream-channel erosion in oak woodlands. California Agriculture 58: 138-143.
Nutrient and Pathogen Publications
Stream Temperature Publications
- Tate, Kenneth W., David F. Lile, Donald L. Lancaster, Marni L. Porath, Julie A. Morrison and Yukako Sado. 2005. Graphical analysis facilitates evaluation of stream-temperature monitoring data. Calif. Agric. 59:153-160.
- Tate, Kenneth W., David F. Lile, Donald L. Lancaster, Marni L. Porath, Julie A. Morrison and Yukako Sado. 2005. Statistical analysis of monitoring data aids in prediction of stream temperature. Calif. Agric. 59:161-167.
Riparian Management Publications
- Ward, T.A., K.W. Tate, and E.R. Atwill. 2003. Visual Assessment of Riparian Health. ANR Publ. No. 8089. Div. of Agric. And Nat. Res., Univ. of Calif., Oakland, Calif. 23 pgs. http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu/pdf/8089.pdf
- Ward, T.A., K.W. Tate, and E.R. Atwill. 2003. Guidelines for Monitoring the Establishment of Riparian Grazing Systems. ANR Publ. No. 8094. Div. of Agric. And Nat. Res., Univ. of Calif., Oakland, Calif. 37 pgs. http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu/pdf/8094.pdf
- Ward, T.A., K.W. Tate, E.R. Atwill, D.F. Lile, D.L. Lancaster, N.K. McDougald, S. Barry, R.S. Ingram, H.A. George, W.J. Jensen, W.E. Frost, R. Phillips, G.G. Markegard, S. Larson. 2003. A Comparison of Three Visual Assessments for Riparian and Stream Health. J. Soil and Water Conservation. 58:83-88.